ww2 11 oz bren carrier printed mug
The customary service, additionally referred to as the Bren Gun provider and every so often in reality the Bren service from the light system gun armament, is a commonplace name describing a own family of light armoured tracked motors built by means of Vickers-Armstrongs and other companies.
the primary companies – the Bren service and the Scout carrier with precise roles – entered service earlier than the war, but a single stepped forward design that could update these, the common, become delivered in 1940.
The vehicle turned into used broadly by way of British Commonwealth forces all through the second international battle. popular carriers had been normally used for transporting personnel and equipment, generally support weapons, or as gadget gun platforms. With a few 113,000 built through 1960 within the united kingdom and abroad, it's far the maximum produced armoured preventing vehicle in records.
design and development
The origins of the standard service family may be traced back normally to the Carden Loyd tankettes own family, which turned into developed inside the Twenties, and particularly the Mk VI tankette.
In 1934, Vickers-Armstrongs produced, as a industrial undertaking, a mild tracked vehicle that would be used either to hold a machine gun or to tow a mild discipline gun. The VA.D50 had an armoured container on the front for driver and a gunner and bench seating on the back for the gun group. The war workplace taken into consideration it as a likely replacement for their "Dragon" artillery tractors and took sixty nine because the "light Dragon Mark III". One changed into built as the "service, system-Gun Experimental (Armoured)", sporting a device gun and its crew. The decision turned into made to drop the device gun and its group and the subsequent design had a group of three – driving force and gunner within the the front, third team-member at the left within the rear and the proper rear open for stowage. A small wide variety of this design as "provider, device-Gun number one Mark 1" had been constructed and entered service in 1936. some had been converted into pilot models for the system gun provider, Cavalry service and Scout service – the others have been used for training.
The engine changed into inside the centre of the car with the very last drive at the rear.
The service put the driving force and commander at the front sitting facet by facet; the driving force to the proper. The Ford Flathead V8 engine that powered it turned into positioned in the centre of the automobile with the final force at the rear. The suspension and strolling equipment were based on that used at the Vickers light tank collection using Horstmann springs. Directional manipulate became through a vertical steerage wheel which pivoted about a horizontal axis. Small turns moved the the front avenue wheel assembly, warping the tune so the automobile drifted to that side. similarly movement of the wheel braked the correct track to provide a flip.
The hull in front of the commander's position jutted forward to present room for the Bren gun (or different armament) to hearth thru a easy slit. To both facet of the engine turned into an area wherein passengers may want to trip or shops could be carried. to begin with, there were numerous styles of service that various barely in layout in line with their purpose: "Medium device Gun service" (the Vickers system gun), "Bren Gun provider", "Scout provider" and "Cavalry service". however, manufacturing of a unmarried model got here to be favored and the general layout seemed in 1940; this was the most widely produced of the carriers. It differed from the previous fashions in that the rear section of the body had a rectangular shape, with extra area for the crew.
Australian-built machine gun provider displayed on the returned & services League membership in Roma, Queensland
Serial wide variety of the service displayed at the Roma (Qld) RSL
manufacturing of vendors commenced in 1934 and ended in 1960. before the widespread design changed into brought, the motors have been produced with the aid of Aveling and Porter, Bedford motors, the British branch of the Ford Motor company, Morris automobiles restricted, the Sentinel Waggon Works, and the Thornycroft business enterprise. With the advent of the everyday, production in the united kingdom changed into undertaken by way of Aveling-Barford, Ford, Sentinel, Thornycroft, and Wolseley motors. via 1945 production amounted to approximately 57,000 of all models, together with a few 2,four hundred early ones.
The widespread vendors, in distinct editions, were also produced in allied international locations. Ford Motor organization of Canada manufactured about 29,000 automobiles called the Ford C01UC well-known service. Smaller numbers of them were additionally produced in Australia (about 5,000), in which hulls had been made in numerous places in Victoria and by using South Australian Railways workshops in Adelaide, South Australia. approximately 1,300 have been also produced in New Zealand.
the us of the us synthetic prevalent providers for allied use with GAE and GAEA V-8 Ford engines. about 20,000 have been produced.
This segment needs expansion. you may help with the aid of adding to it. (March 2010)
The prevalent carrier changed into ubiquitous in all of the theatres at some stage in the second world warfare with British and Commonwealth armies, from the struggle in the East to the career of Iceland. even though the idea and coverage turned into that the service become a "hearth electricity transport" and the group might dismount to fight, exercise differed. it could bring gadget weapons, mortars, squaddies, components, artillery and statement device.
A typical provider of 52nd Reconnaissance Regiment catches air on manoeuvres, Scotland, 10 November 1942
The seven mechanized divisional cavalry regiments in the BEF at some point of 1939–1940 have been prepared with Scout companies – 44 providers and 28 mild tanks in each regiment. There have been 10 Bren companies in every infantry battalion within the same period.
The reconnaissance corps regiments – which changed the cavalry regiments in assisting Infantry divisions after 1940 – have been each equipped with sixty three vendors, together with 28 Humber Scout cars.
accepted providers were issued to the help groups in infantry rifle battalions for sporting support guns (to begin with 10, 21 via 1941, and as much as 33 according to battalion with the aid of 1943). A British armoured division of 1940–41 had 109 vendors; every motor battalion had 44.
British troops leap from their customary carrier for the duration of an exercise.
A British service platoon at the beginning had ten commonplace companies with 3 carrier sections of 3 normal carriers every plus another established provider in the platoon HQ. every regular carrier had a non-commissioned officer (NCO), a rifleman and a driving force-mechanic. One popular carrier in every section become commanded by using a sergeant, the opposite by means of corporals.
all the prevalent vendors were armed with a Bren light gadget gun and one carrier in every provider segment also had a Boys anti-tank rifle. by using 1941, the service platoon had accelerated in electricity to include four provider sections; one provider in every service segment also carried a 2-inch mortar.
by 1943, every time-honored carrier had a team of 4, an NCO, driver-mechanic and two riflemen. the men anti-tank rifle was additionally replaced through the PIAT anti-tank weapon. The standard carrier's guns will be fired from in or out of doors of the provider. A provider platoon had a higher number of mild aid guns than a rifle company.
carrier phase composition (after 1943)
project Rank Weapon Notes
Orderly non-public Sten geared up with a bike
Commander Sergeant Rifle
driver-mechanic private Rifle
Gunner non-public Bren
Rifleman Lance corporal Rifle No.38 wireless set
Commander Corporal Rifle
driver-mechanic private Rifle
Gunner personal Bren
Rifleman non-public Rifle 2-inch mortar with 36 rounds
Commander Corporal Rifle
driver-mechanic personal Rifle
Gunner personal Bren
Rifleman private Rifle and PIAT
To permit the accepted to function as an artillery tractor in emergencies, a towing attachment that could permit it to haul the Ordnance QF 6 pounder anti-tank gun was delivered from 1943. usually the Loyd provider – which became extensively utilized as a trendy software service – acted because the tractor for the 6-pdr.
In Motorised Infantry Battalions in BAOR (British navy of the Rhine) within the early Nineteen Fifties the popular was issued one according to platoon wearing the Platoon Commander, driving force, signaller and the two” Mortar institution Nos 1 & 2.
normal and the earlier Bren providers were utilized by Australian military gadgets in the Western wilderness marketing campaign.
Captured established providers have been utilized in a number of roles via German forces.
a total of around sixty Bren No.2 companies and Belgian army Vickers software Tractors were transformed into demolition automobiles. sporting a big explosive rate, those could be driven up to enemy positions beneath faraway control and detonated, destroying both themselves and the target. Twenty-9 of both kinds had been deployed in 1942 in the course of the Siege of Sevastopol. They finished some fulfillment in destroying Soviet trenches and bunkers, however a enormous variety have been destroyed by means of artillery. Others have been disabled with the aid of land mines earlier than achieving their target or had been misplaced due to mechanical breakdowns. A trouble for the Germans the use of these foreign-built automobiles turned into the shortage of spare elements.
The great manufacturing of the service allowed for numerous editions to be developed, synthetic and/or utilized by distinctive international locations.
An tried conversion to self-propelled artillery consisting of a single T16 service geared up with a six-model 1968 recoilless gun mount was developed in the overdue 1960s or early Seventies.
Bren service No.2. be aware a unmarried rear compartment for one soldier with a sloping rear plate.
widespread service Mk II
Flamethrower-geared up commonplace carrier on the Israeli Armored Corps museum in Latrun
Praying Mantis prototype at the Tank Museum
carrier, system-Gun No. 2 – 1937
carrier, Bren No.2
service, Scout Mk 1
service, Cavalry Mk 1 – 50 built by means of Nuffield, discontinued with reorganization of cavalry mild tank regiments of cellular division
carrier, Armoured remark post
service, Armoured, 2-pounder
provider, Armored 6-pounder
Mk. I (the original model)
Mk. II (up to date stowage and format, battery moved at the back of the divisional plate, towing hitch)
Mk.III (welded hull, changed engine covers)
Wasp: A flamethrower-geared up version, the use of the "Flame-thrower, portable, No 2". The Mark I had a hard and fast flamethrower on the front of the automobile fed from two gasoline tanks with a combined ability of 100 gallons. 1000 produced. The Mk II had the projector within the co-driver's function. The Mk IIC (C for Canadian) had a unmarried seventy five gallon fuel tank on the rear of the vehicle outside the armour safety, allowing a 3rd group member to be carried.
Praying Mantis: An try and produce a low-silhouette car that would nonetheless fire over limitations. A one-man layout primarily based on Carden Loyd suspension changed into no longer adopted, however the inventor become advocated to design a -man version. This model seemed in 1943 and was based upon the universal carrier. The hull changed into replaced with an enclosed metal-box structure with sufficient room for a motive force and a gunner lying inclined. This box, pivoting from the rear, may be accelerated. on the pinnacle stop turned into a machine-gun turret (with Bren guns). The goal become to power the Mantis up to a wall or hedgerow, raise the gun, and fireplace over the impediment from a position of safety. It turned into rejected after trials in 1944. A Mantis survives inside the Tank Museum.
An Australian three inch mortar provider
Windsor service, Overloon Museum
provider, device Gun, neighborhood pattern, No. 1: additionally known as "LP1 service (Aust)". Australian manufacturing much like Bren service however welded and some minor differences.
regularly occurring service MG, neighborhood sample No. 2: also called "LP2 service (Aust)". Australian-built variant of the popular provider. additionally produced in New Zealand. Used 1938–1939 Ford commercial axles; the 2A had 1940 Ford truck axles.
2-pounder Anti-tank Gun service (Aust) or service, 2-pdr Tank assault: A heavily modified and lengthened LP2 provider with a fully traversable QF 2 pounder anti-tank gun established on a platform on the rear and the engine moved to the front left of the vehicle. Stowage changed into supplied for 112 rounds of 2pdr ammunition. 2 hundred had been produced and used for education.
3 inch Mortar service (Aust): A layout based on the 2 Pounder carrier with a 3-inch mortar mounted in vicinity of the 2 pounder. Designed to allow the mortar to have 360 diploma traverse and to be fired either from the automobile, or dismounted. four hundred have been produced and have been in the end despatched as military resource to the Nationalist chinese navy.
Mk.I* (positive differences, in any other case much like British version)
Mk.II* (certain differences, otherwise similar to British version)
carrier, 2-pdr prepared: Canadian change to mount 2-pdr gun. 213 used for education.
Wasp Mk II*: Canadian version of the Wasp flamethrower variant.
Windsor carrier: Canadian improvement with an extended chassis extended 76cm and an extra wheel inside the aft bogie.
T-sixteen: The provider, common, T16, Mark I. become a drastically progressed automobile based totally upon those constructed by means of Ford of Canada, manufactured underneath Lend hire by using Ford inside the united states from March 1943 to 1945. It changed into longer than the standard with an additional road wheel on the rear bogie; making for a pair of complete Horstmann twin-wheel suspension gadgets consistent with side, the engine became a Mercury-department three.nine litre displacement Ford flathead V8 delivering the equal power. rather than the steerage wheel controlling the aggregate brake/warp mechanism, the T-16 had track-brake steerage operated by using levers ( for each side). for the duration of the war, it become chiefly utilized by Canadian forces as an artillery tractor. After the struggle, became utilized by Argentine, Swiss (three hundred) and Netherlands forces.
2 cm Flak 38 auf Fahrgestell Bren(e): single barrel German 2 cm Flak 38 cannon mounted over the engine compartment of a captured Bren provider.
3.7 cm Pak auf Fahrgestell Bren(e): Captured provider of 1940, reused with the aid of the Germans and fitted with a three.7 cm PaK 36 gun.
Panzerjäger Bren 731(e): Bren providers captured by way of the Germans and geared up with a triple Panzerschreck shipping rack as a tank destroyer. They have been no longer fired from the Bren gun carrier, best transported.
Fiat 2800: In 1942, at the request of the Italian army (Regio Esercito), Fiat produced a prototype service copied from a captured commonplace service; it become called the Fiat 2800 or CVP-4. it's far unsure whether or not manufacturing vehicles have been synthetic. Bren providers captured with the aid of the Italians within the discipline had been frequently fitted with Breda M37 gadget guns.
Many variations of the British general provider have been fielded and utilized by the militia of the subsequent countries, amongst many others:
Soviet crimson navy squaddies touring on a British normal service obtained from the UK underneath the american Lend-hire programme near street of Carol I in the Romanian capital of Bucharest in August 1944.
Pre-warfare/2nd world battle duration
Belgium (utilized by in-exile Belgian forces within the center japanese areas for the duration of the conflict, after the united states become invaded and occupied via Nazi Germany in 1940)
China: 1500 u.s.a.supplied by means of Australia for the duration of the war, with a giant quantity of those (approximately 400) being 3-inch mortar-provider versions. The pro-japanese Collaborationist chinese language military also received companies captured in Singapore by the japanese.
Czechoslovakia Mk.Is used by Czechoslovak battalion eleven inside the center East, Mk.Is, Mk.IIs, Mk.IIIs, Mortars utilized by Czechoslovak impartial Armoured Brigade in uk and Western Europe, 15 united statesMk.II obtained from the u.s. - served in I Corps of the Czechoslovak army-in-exile on the japanese front)
France: utilized by loose French Forces
Nazi Germany (by means of the German Wehrmacht, which operated a small quantity of seized UC cars captured specifically from the UK)
Greece (fielded with the aid of loose Greek troops following the united states's fall to Nazi German occupation within the middle East, just like the exiled Belgian navy forces)
Azad Hind: The Indian countrywide army acquired providers captured via Japan after the fall of Singapore.
ireland: 26 Mk. I providers received in 1940 and two hundred Mk. II providers from 1943 to 1945. still in service within the Nineteen Sixties.
country of Italy: a few captured usautilized by the Regio Esercito unit of the Italian navy and one locally produced copy (the Fiat 2800 [it])
Netherlands Nederlandse regering in ballingschap: utilized by the Royal Netherlands Motorized Infantry Brigade.
Poland: operated through the in-exile Polish military inside the West
Portugal: the Portuguese military acquired more than 178 popular vendors from 1942.
uk (the primary operator in WWII)
united states of america (57 u.s.a.en route for Canadian troop devices in Hong Kong were in the Philippines whilst the japanese invaded each Hong Kong and the Philippines, with forty usataken over and operated by the united states 1st Provisional Tank institution)
Soviet Union (acquired 2 hundred earlier than the quit of 1941 and 2,560 familiar vendors and similar Lloyd vendors starting from then till the cease of WWII in 1945)
Thailand (118 usaoperated in 1944, probable provided (covertly) with the aid of the UK)
Democratic Federal Yugoslavia Yugoslav Partisans
Argentina (250, together with T-16s, furnished by using the United Kingdom among 1946 and 1950)
Biafra (very likely received from a French trader, with a few transformed and modified domestically with more armour)
Egypt (likely furnished via departing British forces from the center East)
France (small numbers used by the French expeditionary corps, the CEFEO, fighting in Indochina)
Israel (obtained many from withdrawing British troops in Palestine, other than buying them from the scrapyards of numerous european nations after WWII and capturing them from Egypt among their conflicts)
Kuwait (former British shares, which had been retired from frontline provider in 1961)
Federal Republic of Germany (the Bundeswehr obtained 100 ex-British americain 1956)
The Netherlands: a number of operated following WWII (possibly ex-British UCs), mainly in the independence war in their former colony of Indonesia (the Dutch East Indies) between 1945 and 1949, as a part of the Indonesian national Revolution. A small number have been misplaced and in the end taken over through the new Indonesian Republic's navy. a few were armed with a M40 recoilless rifle.
Switzerland (used and fielded predominantly US-constructed T16 variations of the established service up till probable the early Sixties)
A Wasp flamethrower tank on display within the Canadian war Museum
An Australian 2-pounder anti-tank gun UC version
A British Indian soldier guarding a captured substantially-changed time-honored service, used by Indonesian nationalist defense force throughout the war of Surabaya inside the Indonesian national Revolution
A British army universal service leads a few German prisoners-of-conflict into a Belgian metropolis.
Australians using Bren providers in the direction of Bardia, Libya, January 1941
Komsomolets armored tractor